Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle that employs a combustion engine system together with an electric propulsion system. Hybrid technologies expand the usable range of EVs beyond what an all-electric-vehicle can achieve with batteries only.
How do Hybrid electric vehicle work?
Hybrid vehicles have a conventional engine (gasoline or diesel) as well as a large battery and an electric motor, so that the wheels of the car are driven by both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. There are various arrangements for these two motors. In the parallel hybrid car, both the conventional engine and the electric motor are attached to the driveshaft and the wheels of the car. In the series hybrid car, the conventional engine is used only to generate electricity, which then goes through a wire to an electric motor that drives the wheels. Combinations also exist; for example, the front wheels are driven by a conventional engine and the rear wheels by an electric motor.
The hybrid vehicle typically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), resulting in fewer emissions being generated.
Following features make a hybrid vehicle particularly efficient for city traffic where there are frequent stops, coasting and idling periods.
- Recapturing energy normally wasted during braking etc.
- Shutting down the gasoline or diesel engine during traffic stops or while coasting or other idle periods;
- Improving aerodynamics – improving the shape and aerodynamics of a car is a good way to help better the gas mileage and also improve handling at the same time.
- Using low rolling resistance tires
- Relying on both the gasoline (or diesel engine) and the electric motors