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12 Principles of Green Chemistry

The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry, published by Paul Anastas and John Warner in Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice (Oxford University Press: New York, 1998) provide a road map for chemists to implement green chemistry.

Green chemistry technologies provide a number of benefits, including: Reduced waste, eliminating costly end-of-the-pipe treatments, Safer products, Reduced use of energy and resources, Improved competitiveness of chemical manufacturers and their customers.

12 Principles of Green Chemistry

  1. Prevent waste
  2. Design safer chemicals and products
  3. Design less hazardous chemical syntheses
  4. Use renewable feedstocks
  5. Use catalysts, not stoichiometric reagents
  6. Avoid chemical derivatives
  7. Maximize atom economy
  8. Use safer solvents and reaction conditions
  9. Increase energy efficiency
  10. Design chemicals and products to degrade after use
  11. Analyze in real time to prevent pollution
  12. Minimize the potential for accidents

[ epa.gov ]

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